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Are my ideas admired or rejected? The Arts
You Decide for Yourselves Co-operation
Rationalism Economics
Self Respect Socialism - Communism
Social Reform Character
Science Women's Rights
Education Why were woman prevented
from receiving education?
The Tamil Language Marriage
Alphabet Reform The Youth
Literature Politics
The Tirukural Public Service
About Myself ?

I, E. V. Ramaswamy, have taken upon myself the task of reforming Dravidian Society so that it shall be comparable to other societies of the world, in esteem and enlightenment, and I am solely devoted to that service.

I express, plainly and openly, thoughts which occur to me, and which strike me as right. This may embarrass a few; to some this may be distasteful; and a few others may even be irritated; however, all that I utter are proven truths and not lies.

It is my considered opinion that kings are redundant in the present-day world, and that they are demeaning in the self-respects of the people.

I am also one who says that besides kings, rich men, landed aristocracy, business, and Capitalist s are groups that should be eliminated, as they are parasites on men.

Not that all the people of the world should act according to my wish, but that come what may, surely in polities and in public life, humane justice alone, and not justice as prescribed by any epoch or religion should be imposed: such is my desire.

I shall never be a party to doing anything by instigating others from behind. Even if I am thus inclined by any chance, I have not the capacity to do so. To act from behind, certain means and machinery are required, Because I lack these, I have had not only to remain a servant of society throughout my life, but also to give expression to my views candidly, and to censure, where necessary, without fear or favour.

As far as I am concerned, I am never a party man. I have always been a man of principles.

In my public life, after I reached my years of discretion, I always volunteered to support the government of Non- Brahmins. In this, I did not see any dignity or indignity.

I had my strong conviction even from 1925 that superstition must be eradicated and that people should be turned into rationalists.

Till the end of my life, I shall never canvass for a vote. I shall not even expect a word of praise from any quarter.

I am one who has been ostracized by politics and religion. I have suffered pain and privation; sacrificed my self - esteem; and rejected a place in the ministry.

Indeed, it was my family and I who volunteered for the first time in India to court imprisonment for the sake of the freedom we cherish so dearly today.

I have supported whichever political party has done well to the society to which I belong, and opposed those that have done ill. I have not supported any party merely it is in power.

I serve only because I wish that our people and society should progress of other lands. In the best interest of society, therefore, I support those that are capable of doing well to our people, and those administrators who work for our social betterment.

When a peace-conference was convened for the suspension of the Civil Disobedience Movement, Sankaran Nair requested Gandhiji to stop picketing toddy shops and talk peace afterwards, Gandhiji remarked: ' Stopping the picketing of toddy shops is not in my hands. It is in the hands of E. V. Ramaswamy 's wife and sister in Tamil Nadu '. Thus my family and I courted imprisonment for the Gandhiji's principles.

I am under no necessity to permanently support anyone for gaining selfish ends. I see no wrong at all in supporting that person who does well to us, who strives for the removal of our social degradation even if he is a foreigner.

I have no (political) heirs. My principles and ideas are my heirs. My principles and ideas are my heirs. Heirs should evolve on their own.

Even if I were to live in a place where I would have to experience much worse sufferings than those of a hellish life, I would considered it a pleasanter life than this mean, caste -ridden existence, if only I were respected as a man there.

Gandhiji said: 'If the untouchables are prevented from drawing water from a well, let separate well be dug for them; if they are not allowed into the temple, let separate temples be build for them '. I said then: 'if no amends are made for the abject humiliation that they cannot draw water from a well, let them the die of thirst. That they must be freed from this degradation is more importance than the provision of water to save their lives.'

For how long are we still to remain 'sudras ' and allow our progeny also to be 'sudras ', in this world? Should we not do something to attain human dignity, devoid of our ills, at least in this generation, during this age of science of scientific freedom? Is there a nobler deed than this for us? It is for this reason that I have dedicated the whole of my life for this cause: and not out of any perversity or spite.

Some say that eradication of caste is communalism, and hatred for the high-castes. Are we communalist? Have we ever harmed a single Brahmin, or set fire to a Brahmin locality? An appeal for the abolition of caste is not to be considered class-hatred.

In our country, those that endeavour class to put an end to the ills of caste are like those that administer medicine for malaria; they cannot prevent the incidence of the disease in others. But I am like a doctor who prevents it by destroying the malaria causing mosquitoes in the stagnant waters.

The oppressed and backward people -toilers, coolies, poor men- who are treated like animals, are an eye -sore to me. This sorry sight can be removed only by their being made equal among men.

Though I am more than sixty years of age, my feelings are not as old, only because of my contact with the young. To do nothing is something my mind is never inclined to. Rest and boredom are suicide to me.

People all over the world should unite. They should have an existence that does no harm to other beings. Means must be found for a peaceful life, free from envy, care, deceit, hatred and sorrow. This is my cherished wish.

I am aware that my capacity is limited. But my love for humanity is boundless. That is why I am impelled to action and utterance beyond my position and capacity.

You conduct yourselves according to what you deem proper, after an inquiry aided by reason, this is what I call reform.

Do not think I am selfless. I am a very avaricious person. My desire and selfishness are boundless; I consider the welfare of the Dravidian society as my own welfare, and I toil solely for that 'Selfishness '
Justice, and nothing else, is my justification.

Are my ideas admired or rejected?

Are they considered lofty or low? I do not bother. My life's aim is that my views, however bitter they are to others, should only express truth.

From my tenth year onwards, (as far as I can remember), I have been an atheist. I have no faith in caste or rituals. In matters of public conduct, I am aware that others should not be pained or troubled; apart from this, I have little regard for proper conduct. Even though I am covetous of money and materials, I have earned them only through my resourcefulness and not by pecuniary dishonesty, or by betrayal of trust. I have never attempted to cheat anyone, even in the smallest matter. Even though I may have told lies in business deals, I have not told lies in public - life, or consciously expressed opposing views. Why should a person like me carry enmity or ill will to a particular community? I am one who ardently wishes to bring our land and society on a par with the character and culture of England. I consider, rightly or wrongly, that the Brahmin community is a stumbling block to this.

Should not the Brahimins then demonstrate that such is not the case? ? In fact, if only I had the support of the Brahmins, I would have found it possible to a large extent to bring about the advancement of our country.

I am one who lives just to see that the whole world is suffused with atheistic rationality.
My only goal is the welfare of the people.

I am no passionate seeker after power. Only, I have a fierce social consciousness. For the sake of the welfare of society, I am prepared in the days to come to give up anything.

I devote myself to service only for the reason that our people should gain in knowledge and live on a par with the peoples of the world.

With me, there is never anything like 'my money '. As I had endowed all my money and property in the name of the Movement when I entered public service, I do everything, even eating, from out of the funds of the Movement. It is your money, and not mine at all, that I donated to a College, and a Hospital. After out what was appropriate for the public goods, I spent out of the Movement's General Funds.

If I know that any individual is devoted to Tamil, I shall certainly become a slave to him. If he is cultured, I shall indeed be his bosom-friend. Otherwise, I would look upon him as anon-entity.

I, E. V. Ramaswamy, have taken upon myself the task of reforming Dravidian society so that it shall be comparable to other societies of the world, in esteem and enlightenment, and I am solely devoted to that service.

Whether I am competent to do that service or not, I have taken the task upon myself because no one else in the country has come forward to do so.

Because I configure plans and principles on the basis of reason and because I have no other attachments, I consider myself qualified to do that service. For one who does social service, this will do, I believe.

Even as a pipe must needs be played, and a drum beaten, I must perforce talk or lecture, as long as I have a throat and a voice.

Our people seem to take pride in cherishing antiquity. But I am one who detests this craze for tradition. This is why many hate me. But I am confident that those who know will soon go over to my side.

I consider myself a rationalist. I am not averse to anything that is in tune with reason and I am not in agreement that is irrational. This sums up my attitude.

I believe that conducting oneself properly and adhering to honesty in everything without concealing truth, give one a unique strength.

I do not cite any precedent to explain my principles and utterances. The effort of those that run after what others have said does not accord with good sense. I may point out that others support my ideas, but I should not indicate that such persons have said thus and thus, and therefore I also say, after them.

Rationalist that I am, I have no attachment whatsoever to God, religion, literature or language. I shall talk only of that which is acceptable to intelligence; that which does well to people and that which enlightens them.

Some even asked me: 'You are a Kannadiga; how can you be a leader of Tamils?' I countered; ' Dear fellow! No Tamil has qualified himself to lead! This is because one Tamil does by no means tolerate the rise of another Tamil to a position of leadership '.

I am aware that I am friendly with people owing only to a Movement, and not because of other worldly ties. I say so because, in many areas, by expressing opposing views, I swim against the current of popular opining. This is the fate of all those that conduct themselves thus.

My life is like a shorn -off tree. If a fruit bearing tree, it must be protected from others throwing stones at it. But I do not think of so protecting myself. As I do not care for anything. I do not fear anyone; nor do I desire to gain favours from anyone

As regards speech, some deliver it with an eye for elegance; some for ornateness; some others to make people laugh or to win their approbation; a few others speak just to exhibit their learning; and some to express their ideas. I belong to the category.

Give a fair hearing and though t to all that I say. If it is acceptable to your intelligence, follow it accordingly; otherwise, reject it. I shall not compel to do what I say, by telling you that I am an incarnation of God, or that God speaks to you from within me, or that I am a leader.

Even as a mother, bound by natural instincts, tends all her offspring, to give them an equal experience, so it is with me as regards my relationship with people. Also, as the same mother tries to feed her lean and weak child with more food than what she offers the rest of her children, to make him equal to them, so I show greater sympathy to the weak and the backward; and likewise I exhibit my feelings towards Brahmins and the other communities.

I am an ascetic. To an ascetic, an emperor is chaff, it is said. To me not only the emperor, but, so is God, scriptures, caste and politics; nay, I consider them the filtered essence of can't and hypocrisy.

You Decide for Yourselves

Decide for yourselves as to what you should think of those who say there is God, that He is the preserver of Justice and that He is the Protector of All, even after seeing that the practice of Unsociability, in the form of man being banned from human sight and contact, from walking in the street, from entering the temples and from drawing water from a tank, is rampant in a land and yet that land is spared from being razed by an earthquake, burnt by the fiery lava of a volcano, engulfed in a deluge from the occan , submerged in the chasm of the earth , or fragmented by a thunder - storm .


Why is it that a foreigner is required to find out the height of the Himalayas, while we claim to have discovered the Seven Words, above and the seven more below; why is it that when we claim to have the ability to expound Lord Nataraja's Cosmic Dance, the construction of this simple loudspeaker in front of us is an enigma; we should really contemplate on these aspects. You should come forward to use reason to enlarge your general Knowledge.

Man is considered superior to other beings in this world, because he has limitless capacity for knowledge. People in other lands have advanced greatly, utilizing this knowledge. But our countrymen owing to lack of this knowledge are abjectly deteriorating. Stating that ours is a land of enlightenment, we build tanks and temples; in other lands, men fly in space and amaze the whole world.

In other lands, knowledge alone is respected and trusted and held as the basis of everything, But in this country, men believe only in rituals and ceremonies, in God, in religion and such other rubbish,

Knowledge, born of rationalisation, is real knowledge. Can mere bookish lore become knowledge? Can one become a genius through learning by rote? Why is it that educated persons endowed with the highest mental gifts - degree holders in general and science and degree holders in particular - believe that a more stone is a God and prostrate before it? Why do great savants and specialists in science anoint themselves with turbid water in order to expiate their sins? Are there any connection between the science they have learnt and the anointing mixture consisting of cow's - drug and urine?

The aeroplane is referred to in Ramayana and Mahabharata, but the power of magic. The aeroplane is explained in English literature, but it flies by mechanical power. What do we need now? Mechanical or magical energy?

Let us bring up two children of the same parents - one in England and the other, in our country. He who is reared in England will look at everything from a scientific point of view, and the other will consider everything from a religious point of view.

The reason for the present chaos and deterioration in our country is that we have been hindered from enquiry and cogitation and repressed from the use of rationality.

In whatever manner you surmise God, and with whatever good intentions you found a religion, the results are all the same. A reformist God and a rational religion cannot achieve anything more than a superstitious God and a blind religion.

Just as machines, invented for the social good of man, to give him added advantage and to save him labor and time, are under the control of the capitalists to keep the worker and the laborer in hunger - so reason that is to serve for the excellence, satisfaction and comfort of man has been enslaved by a few, to cause people pain, poverty and anxiety.

Activities that are not consonant with rational understanding, intellectual enquiry and human needs should not be carried on in the name of customs, traditions, God, religion, caste and class, or in any other name.

Man possesses reason. It is given to him for enquiry, not for blind animalism. It is by abusing reason that man has brought himself into a lot of troubles. He has created God, as an antidote to his troubles.

Uncertainties in life, dissatisfaction owing to wants and competition among individuals, if these exist in a country, then it is evident that her people do not have full powers of reason. In a country where people live freely and in contentment, it is clear that reason rules there

Man believes that he must gather wealth for his children who have the gift of reason, even by cheating his own society. But animals and birds do not save anything for their offspring who do not have the gift of reason; in fact they bite, peck and chase them away when the time comes for them to be on their own. They do not care for them or even remember them afterwards.

Within a span of two thousand years, people had lost the prerogative of using their own intelligence, Knowledge did not increase, and society did not improve, because men did not have the right to question the why and the literates said of what was written down. They were suppressed by being told that thinking, arguing and doubting were sins.

Man does not go by what his own intelligence tells him by God, saint, stage and Avatars.

Anything that is not in tune with reason and self - respect must be eschewd.
If superstition is removed and religion is viewed in the light of reason, no religion will survive.

If greed is put an end to, no man will ever believe what is contrary to his intelligence and experience.

I do not know for how many centuries our people have to wait for attaining reason and maturity. I have to believe that Tamil Nadu will have no salvation unless she is razed to her foundation by a catastrophic deluge or storm, a flood or an earthquake, and then renewed.

Those who respect reason should not hastily believe what is heard; what is written down; what appears to be happening over a long time; what is followed by many; or what is said by God, or a Great Soul. Anything that excites our wonder should not be immediately believed as divine or miraculous. In every circumstance, we must be prepared to think freely, rationally and impartially.

It is through rationality that man's longevity has been increased and his mortality rate has been significantly reduced.

One who possesses knowledge, and is aware of Nature, is free from sorrow. There is pain when an injection is administered for good health; but in spite of pain, one tolerates it in expectation of the cure. That is the nature of knowledge.

It is the power of thinking that distinguishes man from animals and birds. It is because of this that these, through much stronger than man, are enslaved by him.

It is the power of reasoning, more than any other power in man that makes him superior to all other beings. Therefore, we can say that in proportion to the measure of its use does he conduct himself with human qualities. He who does not use his reason is only an animal.

Because we have been constantly told and compelled to believe that it is a sin to think thus, or to inquire into a matter thus, we are now unable to analyse any matter. If only we turn round with courage, we can progress fast.

Who is barbarian? He that has no brain; he that has no reason; he that does not think despite possessing thought and reason; and he that blames without thinking: these I consider barbarians.

Following superstitious beliefs, without rational thinking, has ushered in the condition of the worker becoming the vassal, and the sluggard becoming the lord.

In the land of the naked, he that covers himself is deemed mad! Similarly, is it surprising that in the land of barbarians, he that thinks - the rationalist - appears as mad?

Whatever is done, whatever the event, and the matter, we should see beforehand whether they are consonant with the why and wherefore of things, with experience, enquiry and intelligence? Only then will knowledge grow. Instead, if custom, tradition and ancestral practice are followed, only stupidity will grow and not intelligence.

Do not follow anything just because some one else has said it. Do not slavishly sell your conscience to others. Analyse and inquire into every thing.

You are prepared to expend your money and dignity and give up your liberty and equality to any extent. But you are using your reason even to a small extent. Why do you show such economy only in this? If this situation continues, when are we to become men?

Firstly, we should all become men, before we become Ministers, Chief Ministers, First of all, reason should grow, and the innate thought process should flourish, to enable us to be men.

Even when we buy a saree we buy it after a good deal of thought as to whether the saree bought before the same shop has server well and whether the shop keeper is honest. We, who use our reason for such trivial matters, fail to use it in important affairs. So we get quite deceived. My first duty, therefore, is to stress the necessity of reason.

What we need today is the growth of knowledge, in order to advance in every field. Knowledge should have its sway.

What man needs today is not money, or shelter or transportation, but the growth of intelligence. We should complete more for acquiring knowledge than for earning any money.

Your own consciousness rules you; not God, or men of religion. Without straightaway accepting what I say, accept only what appears to be right to your reason, and reject the rest.

Reason is the life - blood of man. Among all creatures, only man possesses reason. The lower he is in the exercise of this faculty, comparably, the more of a barbarian he is. He attains maturity, consonant with the clarity he achieves through reason.

Rationality is the acute capacity of thinking.
Man should contemplate on anything, not by following the path of belief, but that of reason. He should see whether the object of his contemplation stands the test of inquiry. Only then he rises to human stature from a primitive state.

Your guide is your own intelligence. Use it well. Avoid being suspicious of others. Because your own reason has been circumscribed, the cultivation of knowledge is stultified. What your forebears have said are neither verities nor wonders Leave those to them; without relation to these, endeavour to discover and to do. Give priority to knowledge.

Of all the creatures in the world, man alone possesses reason and intelligence. If he uses them, he can achieve great deeds.

Analysing everything with courage and intelligence, according to the occasion and need, rejecting what should be rejected, contributing what should be contributed, to reform, without fearing change: this is the inevitable duty of rational.

Self Respect

We are fit to think of ' Self - respect ' only when the notion of superior and inferior caste is banished from our land.

Religion, politics, economics and social life in India are based only on class distinctions. That is why some live high and many are constrained to live low in society. People have also lost their sense of self - respect.

He who does not care for dignity, is no better than to a prostitute, however education he is. His education will only endanger those that care for dignity.

If any one wishes to serve society, on the basis of humanism, what he should do first is to make people think and conduct themselves rationally.

Because man has been compelled to have faith and trust in a mysterious God, he is now made to believe all the lies about Him.

Man does not grow by merely accepting whatever others have said. However, do listen to others, but later think with the help of your reason. Accept and try to follow what appears right to you.

The aim of a genuine self - respect movement is to change whatever appears to be adverse to man's feelings of self - respect.

That which enslaves you to customs of the world to orthodoxy, to the rigours of religion, contrary to your rationality and awareness of truths of experience, is what I shall describe as antagonistic to self - respect.

This all- important awareness of self - respect. Based on feelings of dignity and indignity, may be deemed man's birth - right, as the word 'man' is itself a word based on dignity. Therefore, he who is called 'man ' embodies dignity in himself, and only through his right to this dignity, reveals his human qualities. That is why ' self - esteem is his birth - right.

Man must remove by himself his feelings of inferiority, the feeling that he is lesser born than other beings, and attain self -confidence and self - respect.

If people imbibe feelings of genuine self-respect it will automatically set right political, nationalism and also theology.

It is not possible that legislation and the process of franchise by themselves can bring about reformation and self - respect.

In Western countries, self - esteem is needed only in the sphere of economics. But we need it in religion, society, education, Knowledge, research handicraft. Politics, economics and in several other fields.

What our people need now is not only education, but also awareness and self - respect. Feeling of self - respect, the ability is what we need most today.
Man must hold his personal respect and dignity as preciouses as his life.

We can confront a thousand self - respecting people. But it is a difficult task to grapple with one who is without self - respect.

Social Reform

Books that advocate communal distinctions and complexes of superiority and inferiority should be prohibited from being read. If read, they should be confiscated.

Social reform cannot stand apart from politics, nor can politics stand apart from social reform. Politics exists only for human society. Every political active is only for social good. Constitutional law and defense are made only for society and in accordance with social good.

Offering alms and receiving alms. Should be deemed illegal, if human society should prosper without hindrance. Only then will man be able to live in self - respect.

The evils of religion, communalism, tradition and orthodoxy can never be eradicated from our land and society, unless the government creates what may be called a ' Department for Defeating Superstitious Belief's and through it facilitates propaganda against these evils in schools and public places and among students and the people.

The world today has no place for the meek, the poor, the innocent and the honest. Are we to wait for an opportune time to mend this condition?

It is important that communal distinctions, in the name of temple, are eradicated and that all the properties held in the name of temples are utilized for the welfare of the people.

In many matters, without being harmed and demeaned by other s, we have subjected ourselves to a debasement and a lowly condition. Our society will never change. Without our reforming ourselves, without a change of heart among us.

History bears out that the threat of power has never stopped any reform. Social changes will always occur. People also will undergo social change.

Tentative and superficial changes here and there in the name of social reform will not bear fruit. The present social set - up should be destroyed at its very base, and a new social order, free from cast and class be created.

Though we have progressed and changed in the field of politics, we are still backward in the social field. This condition should change.

Ours is an obstinate society. Even after more than three - fourths of the people of the world have progressed, our society is still in a backward and barbaric stage, adamantly following customs of yore, because they have been adopted for a long time by its forebears.

Our society consists of many castes, religions and sects. The human and social distinctions that exist in our country should be put an end to. Without considering that someone else will bring about this change, each one of us should do something for our society.

Whomsoever I love or hate, my principle is the same. That is, the educated the rich and the administrators should not suck the blood of the poor.

Those that pretend to serve the cause of social good for their selfish ends, without caring even a little for our society, are enemies of the Tamils, even if they are themselves Tamils.

In the village where you reside, some fifty people are affected by water - borne and you discover that the well in the village contains the carrier - germs. Pumping out the water completely should clean the well. If the springs in the well are they infected, then they should also be closed and a new well dug. If one insists on drinking the same infected water, then there is no escape for him from that disease. I am engaged in the task of stopping those springs in the well.

The proper task of social reform is to remove poverty from society and to ensure that people do not sell their conscience to make a living.

Reforms should be so brought about as to teach people good conduct, to enlarge knowledge, to cultivate compassion and charity to living beings, and to infuse in them a growing awareness of equality and self - respect.

To discard what is unwanted and to retain what is needed is what reform means.

Those who undertake reform should not be subjected to any control. The real path to reform is to break all the shackles that impede change

Those who are timid and fearful that others would not respect them, they would be ridiculed, that there would be growing opposition to them, and that they would lose the sympathy of the world, can never bring about genuine reforms. No reforms, undertaken by people of these qualities, will ever bear fruit.

The reformer's real duty is to think of the source of the deterioration and to seek measures to ensure that such deterioration never occur again in the generations to come.

No individual who came forward to achieve social reform on the basis of religion has ever succeeded even to a small extent.

If the education, the rich and the administrators are opposed to the welfare of the toiling people and to their enjoying all the fruits of their labor, then they are only fit to disappear from the face of the earth.

Without an upheaval in our attitude to religion, caste, customs, traditions, orthodoxies, God, and commandments, which are the bases of social tyranny, no political reform will be of any use to the ordinary folk.

Is it necessary that there should be divisions of high (Brahmins) and low (Panchamas) castes in society? If it is said that God is responsible for this, should those of the lowly castes (panchamas and Sudras) worship Him?


If man objects to the use of machines, then it are evident, he is against the expansion of knowledge.

Look at the enormous change in our life today. Our comforts in daily life have vastly improved. Formerly, we had only the bullock cart. Now we have such modern comforts as the locomotive, the motor car, and aero plane. We struck flints to make a fire, but now, the pressing of a button makes a thousand electric lights burn. Our people's understanding, despite so much change in life, remains just as it was a thousand years ago!

Science exhibitions feature many modern flowerings of the imagination. Several new inventions, conductive to life's comforts, would be displayed there. Sensitive instruments, obtained from many countries, would find a place at the exhibition. He, who enters at one end of the exhibition and comes out at the other, would have increased his knowledge in all fields. He sees and enjoys the world's scientific advancement and attains clarity of understanding. He gets an opportunity to be aware of the many intricacies of research. He has the pleasure of seeing a number of wonderful equipments. In fine, within a few hours, he derives from that exhibition a maturity of knowledge that he would have to spend years at a University to acquire.

Even those , who some time ago believed all the stories about God , that is , who believed that a divine power exists, have now come to be so ashamed of their own belief that hiding their ignorance , they are now struggling heard to prove those stories as scientifically true .

He who first created fire with the help of flints was the ' Edison ' of those days. Thereafter, we advanced step by step and we now have fire through electricity. Thus, change is natural and inevitable, and no one can stop it.

A big change should come about in our country on the food front. We must certainly discover a chemical product as a substitute for rice. We first used steam power, with the help of fire, to drive an engine. Then, according to the changing needs of our time, we utilized kerosene, crude oil, petrol and electricity for power. In a like manner, the human engine, without being driven by a huge intake of food, can be activated by and made to subsist on some fine source of energy, similar to electricity.

Hereafter, even human birth will be rare. Similarly death rate also will decrease. Man can easily live for a hundred years. On an average, no one will have more than two children. There will be no correlation between sexual relationship and child - birth.


The education that man needs is only to make him fit to life in freedom.

To spread education to the masses is as difficult an effort as spreading communism in our country.

The people of a land should first of all be educated if they are to seek progress, to lead a good and cultured life and to gain a proper understanding in the spheres of politics, economics and industry.

Only education, self - respect and rational qualities will uplift the down - trodden.

Teachers should first teach the students what self respect is; and what courage, dignity and equality are Students should be taught to love people.

It is as dangerous for people to support scriptural pundits as using a burning stick to scratch an itching scalp; they have no alternative means of livelihood; and therefore we should be ever watchful in our contact with these pundits.

If teachers are to be useful, they should be capable of free thinking to some extent at least, and also have some degree of respect for reason.

Teachers, parents, officers -all should try to foster good conduct, discipline, fairness and honesty in students.

Great teachers, instead of converting young men into men of religion, should try hard to make them men of knowledge.

Why should any one, in the name of caste, be considered lowly or be made to do a mean job? If all in the country are given education, can there exist a caste for doing mean work? Is it not because of lack of education that those people are constrained to do contemptible work and are considered lowly?

Just as it is fair to provide the necessities of food , clothes and shelter to those who are without these , so is it fair to provide education to those who do not have it .

It is not temples that we need today, but schools. Knowledge can bring about many miracles. Therefore, we do need today schools that will be the basis for imparting knowledge.

Our educational system should change. A trade should be learnt along with academic study. Even if one discontinues his studies in any class, he should be able to eke out a living by a trade. People should be familiar with some trade.

Schools promote literacy and knowledge in a particular field. But the library fosters awareness of general Knowledge in all spheres.

Schools and institutions of higher learning will enlarge knowledge only to a certain extent. Whoever administers them, they are subjected to rules and regulations.

The benefit of learning cannot be fully derived from these kinds of institutions. Only libraries can compensate for this drawback.

In fine, libraries are indeed a University.

It is essential that education in our country should have two cardinal aims. Firstly, education should foster rationality and feelings of self respect. Secondly, it should be conductive to a better life through a job or trade

What is education for? For knowledge. And what is knowledge for? To enable man to live humanely, so that he lives to serve his fellowmen, in honor and without causing hardship to others.

Care should be taken first of all in inculcating discipline among pupils at school. That alone is important. Now only is education. How to conduct one properly is what should be taught first. Good conduct alone makes one a culture man in later life.

If I were the country's administrator, I would exact heavy taxes in order to develop it on right lines. The poor spend whatever is given to them. So, instead of giving them money, their children can be educated out of tax revenue.

Care should be taken to see that books alluding to bad conduct, superstition and social ills do not enter schools or politics.

Edit the poems of Bharatidasan, and prescribe them as texts, as suited to each class at school. Knowledge that can normally be gained in five years can be had in a year, by reading them.

Many think that only seeing God and seeking salvation is enlightenment or knowledge. As this thought is fed from childhood, the student remains ever confused.

The great traits students should follow are: proper conduct, honesty, fairness, doing well to others and not being a hindrance to others. These are for us higher than God.

Discipline alone is very important to children. Fostering it is our paramount duty.

Boys and girls at school should not think it a privilege to were fashionable attire or costly jewellery but should were only simple clothes. At seats of learning where all pupil mix, there should be no distinctions.

Students should not waste their school - life, as it is very, very precious. Their mind should not be distracted by any event outside. Particularly, students should not participate in agitations.

Boys and girls ruin their lives by buying and reading obscene books. They should buy and read books of profound thought and knowledge and imbibe the spirit of inquiry.

First of all, students should be obedient to teachers. Next they should learn discipline. Next only come the lessons at school.

The Tamil Language

The love of one's tongue is the foremost of all loves that are required of the people born in our land. He that has no love for his tongue certainly has no love for his land. A nation functions on the basis of the love for one's language. So it is my prayer that Tamils' love for their mother - tongue should grow.

I affirm again and again that the love of the mother - tongue is a must for those born in Tamil Nadu. The Bengali love Bengali. The Maharashtrians love the Marathi language. The Andhras love the Telugu language. The Andhras love the Telugu language. But the Tamils have no love for the Tamil - tongue. The Tamils will never progress unless they bestow love on their mother -tongue.

If I love Tamil, it is not merely because it is the mother - tongue or the language of the State. Nor am I attached to Tamil by reason of its uniqueness or its antiquity or its being the language that Lord Shiva spoke or its being the creation of Sage Agasthya. I can love a thing only for its innate goodness and the benefits that may flow from it. I do not cherish a thing merely because it happens to be mine , whether it be my language , my land , or my religion , or because I claim what is mine to be hallowed by antiquity .

If I love Tamil. It is because it is because I am aware of the advantages I expect through it and the measure of loss that will occur by the absence of it.

If I consider that my country will not serve my ideals, will not help to forthwith quit it. Similarly, if the language is not conducive to my ideals, or to the advancement of my people, or to their living with self - respect, I will promptly discard it and follow what is useful.

As I am aware of the disadvantages of another language being imposed on our country, I am intolerant of it and oppose it, I do not resist it merely because it is new or it belongs to another land.

It is my opinion that the Tamil Language is capable of contributing to the progress and freedom of the people in all fields, and will be conducive to a life of dignity and reason. However, some may ask whether all such resources are available in Tamil. Even if all these qualities are not found, I am aware that Tamil has arts, customs, traditions, and an appropriate vocabulary, which can contribute to a greater advancement than most other Indian languages. Therefore, any other language that is likely to cause disadvantage to Tamil is unwelcome.

Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and Kannada are of Tamil origin only. The Tamil that is spoken in Malabar is called Malayalam; the Tamil that is spoken in Karnataka becomes Kannada; and the Tamil that is spoken in the regions of Andhra becomes Telugu. All the four speak only Tamil.

Some scholars consider that Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and Kannada came from the same tongue that is they are the offspring of the same mother. This is only a deception according to me. There is only one a deception according to me. There is only one Dravidian tongue, and she is Tamil. And we call her four different names. Because she is spoken in four different regions, she has four different names. It is only Tamil that is spoken in these four regions.

Writing in Tamil about the Arts which are useful to the people in their life and which foster knowledge, talent and courage, and propagating them among the masses, there by enlightening the people and enriching the language: this alone can be regarded as zeal for Tamil.

Alphabet Reform

In writings and publications of 70 or 80 years ago, the vowel 'eel' (I :) indicated today as '___'
Was a cursive and looped represented of the short forms, ' __' (I)?

In stone inscriptions of 400 or 500 years ago, many Tamil letters are found in other shapes.
As a matter of necessity and advantage, it is sensible now to change a few letters, reduce the number, of letters, reduce the number of letters and alter a few signs.

The older and the more divine a language and its letters are to be, they, in truth, need reform.

Because of changes brought about by means of modern transport and international contact, and because of happenings that have attracted words and products from many lands, a number of foreign words and their pronunciation and writing of these words. Therefore it becomes necessary that a few letters are taken from other languages. If we fight shy of doing that, we should at least create some new letters.

Just as some compound characters have separate signs to indicate their length as in ' ___ ' , '____' (ka : ;Ke : ) , why should not other compound characters like ' __' , '__' , '__' , ' __ ' ( ki , ki : , ku, ku : ) ( indicated integrally as of now ) , also have separate signs ? This indeed requires consideration.

It has been my opinion for a long times that the vowel - sounds '__', ' __', (ai, au) are not required in Tamil. Compound characters in Tamil which require the addition of this sound in the shape of '__ ' can be obtained by the use of '__' (y), at the end.

Changing the shape of letters, creating new symbols and adding new letters and similarly, dropping those that are redundant, are quite essential.

The glory and excellence of a language and its script depend on how easily they can be understood or learnt and on nothing else.

If one is an admirer of the Tamils, he is considered a traitor, communalist and a hater of Brahmins. Can there be a greater instance than this for the sorry state of the Tamils? No lover of Tamil attempts to bring about even a small change in Tamil Orthography. Even if someone tries, he has no support. Whoever did try to make Tamil Orthography adequate and easy, to suit present day conditions?

The Tamil Alphabet looks primitive! How many loops! How many dashes! How many upward turns? How many downward turns! Such cumbersome orthography in the present day! Do we need so many letters today? Why do we need 216 letters? The Englishman does wonders and has only 26 letters. And he turns the whole world round with just 26 letters.


A literature that concerns itself with knowledge of Nature , which is common to all , and is far removed from religion and God , and a literature that is to do with irrefutable science - only by these can a language and its Letters be enriched and only by these can people become enlightened .

The importance of a book depends only on its measure of usefulness and not on its creator or on its divine quality and wonderful nature or on its literary or grammatical dimensions.

Literature should nurture culture and inculcate noble qualities in the people.

What is literature for? How should literature be? What can be called literature? Why should it exist? My view is that it should not only help man to live, but also be conducive to the progress society.

Our thoughts of a literary renaissance should always centre themselves on the removal of superstition, meanness, indignity and ignorance.

The Tirukural

People praise the Tirukural but in practice they cherish the Gita which is directly opposed to it!
Valluvar's Kural is impelled by ideas that are in accordance with practical knowledge, and in tune with Nature and Science.

Those who study the Kural deeply will certainly attain a consciousness of self - respect. Knowledge of politics, knowledge of society and knowledge of economics are all embedded in it.

The Tirukural is a work that is so written as to teach society noble traits and proper conduct by pointing to a moral path and fostering ethical principles. That is why peoples of all religion, all over, adore the Kural as their work or as one that agrees with the principles of their religion.

It is my firm conviction that the kural was especially created to demonstrate that the arts, culture, ethics and conduct of the Tamils were vastly different from and antithetical to those of the Aryans.

Only because we regard Valluvar as a man, a great man, who strove of the removal of the ills of the people so that human qualities could be nurtured, we accept his kural. We do not accept it as divine utterance or inspired Apocalypse.

It is better to read ten kural for knowledge, than a hundred songs of kambaRamayana or two hundred songs of periapurana, or kandapurana.

If any one asks you what yours religion is say that you belong to the ' Valluvar Religion ' and if you are asked what your moral code is , say that it is the kural . The kural is so irrefutable that no conservative or crafty person will dare to oppose you.

The Tirukural will pave a lofty way for the eradication of superstition and the enlargement of knowledge. The thoughts of the kural should be spread throughout the country. It should be brought about that education means the learning of the kural and knowledge means, the awareness of the kural.

The author of the kural did not accept God, Heaven and Hell, You could find only Virtue, wealth and Love in the Kural; ' Salvation ' and ' Final Bliss ' are not alluded to by the author.

In the Kural, there is a chapter on invocation to God, but there is no place in it for principles of idol worship.
Valluvar has invoked God though eight or nine concepts only to show how man should conduct himself and to make him understand life's ethical conduct and status.

The kural is not devotional book. It is not also a book of theology to reveal God; nor is it a book of religious doctrines for evangelism. It only teaches true and egalitarian conduct which is agreeable to all.

He who has intelligence and beholds to knowledge as supreme and he who has the capacity to think and investigate will certainly respect and admire the kural, follow it to some extent at least and keep it as his guide.
The kural embodies in it ethics and practical ways of life, based on experience.

The kural is a treasure house of knowledge. It is a work bound by reason.

The Arts

Tamil Nadu countenances even those who have the andacity to declare from rostrums that it is foolish to demand that Tamil songs should be sung and that there should be Tamil Music in Tamil Nadu , and who ridicule those who demand thus .

Songs in good Tamil , bringing out the beauties of Nature , the courage , compassion and the dignified and egalitarian life of the Tamils , their history , fairness, code of justice , patriotism , zeal for language , unity and discipline , should alone be sung .

There are two kinds of dramas. One is music drama and the other is prose-drama. People prefer only prose - plays.

Our prince of humorists, ' Kalaivanar ' N. S. Krishnan, is a genius in his profession; however, it should be said, that he is also a great revolutionary in the way he carries on his job. His revolution is comparable indeed to that of Lenin because he has brought about a big upheaval in play story - writing and in the field of music.

If the history of the revolution in the world of drama is written, the place of honour should go to N. S. K; otherwise, that history is to be discarded.

The art of drama should be useful to the people. It should not be free from stupid and superstitious thoughts, but also be capable of promoting knowledge and progress.

It is my avowed desire that the world of drama with a view to remaining a really useful guide to society, as it has not been till now, should help to convert this world of cruelty and partiality into one of love and fraternal equality.
It is of little profit to the Tamils, if Literature, Music and Drama do not serve to foster in them self - respect, to enhance their knowledge and to help them to attain human qualities. This applies to arts presented in any language of the world.

Whatever art it is, it should not be conducive to superstition and improper behaviour.


The aim of co-operation is to serve and help others.

We do spend wastefully, without thought. If we carry on our life through co-operative means, only one eight of our present expenditure will be incurred. What remains can be helpful to seven more persons. If the conditions of our nation are not changed, it is certain that our life will soon to ruin.

The earlier principle of individualism should give place to that of co-operation.

Man, by virtue of his reason, has draw up many plans for social co-operation. These cannot be executed by an individual. Necessarily, there must be help from others

If the principle of co-operation is established in a proper manner in our country, then society will be free from the cares and anxieties of the morrow and will be enabled to live a life of peace, joy and contentment.


Many crores of rupees are squandered in this country by way offering gratitude to God and bribing Him to gain greater and greater wealth.

Our economic disparities are due to God, religion and dogma. You will ask me how. If some one is asked how he became rich, he would not say he earned by his own ability, but by the Grace of God or by the blessings of Goddess Lakshmi. The pity is that others believe him.

It is of equal importance that people should be freed from social as well as economic evils.

The desire for and the pre - occupation with seeking wealth consume the entire life of a person. Competition in earning money, and rivalry in showing off as a rich person and acquiring comparable influence, sap all the energy of a person.

If I were a king, even for a short while, I would first of all make a law, imposing the death sentence for squandering wealth at weddings. I will say that the wasting of wealth is a major disease that afflicts India.
Those who suffer by spending beyond their income cannot live honestly and are a menace to the country.

In the present set - up, man can not live quit honestly, without money on hand. The object destitution and the greed for lucre are the reasons for a man becoming a betrayer, a rogue or one who commits branch of trust. Therefore, if money, earned honestly, even if is little, is conserved, there is no necessity to suffer, or to take to wrong ways.

There are no politicians who do not shed tears on the economic condition of India. If that is true, why then are thousands and tens of thousands are being allowed to be spent on what is really one - minute ceremonies, such as marriages contracted on the utterance of some four lines.

Wealth is the common property of the world. All the people have a right to enjoy it, as their own. They have a common right to it, as long as they live; so also they have a responsibility to preserve it.
Usury is a cruel business. If another name is to be given to it; it is tyrannous legalized robbery.

Considering the conditions in the country, I give top priority to the removal of mean communal discrimination; next comes the removal of mean communal discriminations; next comes the removal of economic disparities.

The budget of the Government is not like that of a family which can plan its expenditure according to its income. But the Government should assess what the needs of the people are, arrive at the taxes, and plan accordingly to seek its income.

Day by day, mankind is going towards a climate in which people are devoid of the good traits of decent conduct, honest and a commitment to fairness. The abolition of the right to property is the only remedy.
It is true to some extent that man is not without selfishness and a hankering for recognition; but to amass wealth as a means for this is not natural.

Socialism - Communism

What should be done, if everyone is to have enough food?
If none consumes more than what is needed, than, there will be enough food for all.
All factories and their management should be Governmental, like the administration of the posts, the Telegraphs, the Railways and the public works. Not a single capitalist should exist in the country. No single individual should be our master.

The principle of communism should come into force in the present day world if people are to live in peace and contentment, free from worries and difficulties and from being deceived by each other. In this there is no place for luck. But our efforts should not bring about the least of personal suffering and desolation to the common folk.

Though my aim is to demand economic equality, I believe that coveting other people's properties is an act that is worse than economic inequality. Therefore, it is the Government that should divine equitably by Law.

A single person should not have a vast-accumulated possession of land. A time will come when land will be distributed equally to all. If we cannot bring about the time soon, we should remain as path - finders in this.

If a condition free from tensions and discriminations is to established, a pattern of socialism for all alike should be created, to bring this about, the right to property should be abolished and property should be held in common.

Capitalism should be destroyed at the roots, if the cares and worries of the workers are to be put an end to.
The final aims of communism is to usher in a world - order in which the whole world is one family ; al its peoples are kith and kin ; and all the world 's wealth , its joys , comforts and pleasures belong to that family whose members have an equal share in the property .

The aim of offering succour to the poor is only to help to eradicate poverty from society, and not to create sluggards, by the offer of alms to one here, and another there.


Those who are guilty of misconduct, fraud and knavery, under the guise of public life, should never be spared.
Indeed, drinking liquor is against the law; even more so is receiving bribes. Those who receive bribes are to be deemed social outcasts, fit to be punished and detested.

Collective social good conduct , sympathy , honesty gratitude , trust , etc .., should be prevalent among people , They should volunteer to do good ; they must think good ; and oppose evil . They should not rob others. When they are unguarded, and should conduct themselves especially honestly.

Though there is a lot of advancement in knowledge, human life has vastly deteriorated in knowledge, human life has vastly deteriorated. Man should not descent to the level of substituting treachery and betrayal for love and fair - conduct, or corruption and fraud for honesty!

The first and foremost duty of those who live selflessly is to preach in favour of character, and for the extermination of dishonesty and treachery.

Wants and needs must be lessened for fostering genuine good conduct and honesty. The more we need, and the more we want, the more is the growth of immoral conduct and dishonesty.

Good conduct, honesty, and fairness not only enhance a man's dignity, but are beneficial to all others.
If a nation is to prosper, her people should have good character.

Keep your heart and speak boldly. Do not think of self - esteem in public life. You can serve confidently in direct proportion to how strong, determined, honest and disciplined you are.

Instead of preaching good conduct to others. Everyone should inspect how much of it is found within him.
Only during his student life can conduct be easily inculcated in man.

A life of good character is that which does not cause pain to others. If can be nurtured only when all differences are sunk. Character is the basis for a happy life.

Fair conduct is that which gives no pain to anyone.

We should conduct ourselves with others, in accordance with what we expect of others in this regard; what we think others should do unto us and what kind of conduct towards us that we look for from others. That alone is good character.

Women's Rights

Man treats woman as his own property and not as a behind capable of feelings, like himself.

Why were woman prevented from receiving education?
It was to prevent their emancipation and to make them slaves under the pretext that they did not have intelligence and ability.

The way man treats women is much worse than the way landlords treat servants and the high - caste treat the low - caste .

These treat them so demeaningly only in situations mutually affecting them; but men treat women cruelly and as slaves, from their birth till death.

Women in India experience much worse suffering, humiliation and slavery in all spheres than even the untouchables.

Because we do not realize that the subjugation of women leads to social ruin, that society which should grow, goes on declining day by day, in spite of its capacity for reason.

Each woman should learn an appropriate profession for herself, so that she is able to earn. If she is able to eke out a living at least for herself, no husband will treat her as a slave.

A woman is for the male, a cook for himself; a maid for his house; a breeding farm for his family and a beautifully decorated doll to satisfy his aesthetic sense. Do enquire whether they have been used for any other purpose.

The slavery of women is only because of men. The belief of men that God created man with superior powers and woman to slave for him and woman's traditional acceptance of it as truth are alone responsible for the growth of women's slavery.

The boy and the girl are matched before marriage, not on a consideration of compatibility in appearance, mutual affection, proper understanding and similar education, but on whether the girl will be obedient and be a good slave to the boy, much in the same manner as we do when we buy cattle.

The implication of the sacred knot is that from the time it is tied, the boy accepts the girl as his slave, and she also agrees to be a slave to him. Thus, the husband can treat his wife in whatever manner he likes, and none has the right to question him, nor is there punishment for him if he misbehaves.

The women of today, despite their education, wealth, sophisticated knowledge, dignified relatives and a comfortable life, behave in a very conventional and backward manner, even worse than rustic girls and this causes us pain. How can there be human dignity in the children that are born to these women and brought - up by them?

Our women should change from considering themselves as slaves by birth.

Women! Be brave! If you change, it is easy for your husbands and other men to change. Men throw the blame on you, saying that you are backward. Do not subject yourselves to that accusation. In future, instead of your being described, 'she is so - and - so's wife', your husband must be described, ' so - and - so is the husband of this lady '!

Women who are pampered by their husbands and who succumb to the craze for jewellery and apparel and to the appeal of femenine beauty and fashions , and those that are rich and proud , will be satisfied with their slavish existence , and they will not serve to reform the world .

The main reason for women being derided and their being considered as mere objects of pleasure for men is that they make themselves up in obscene manner.

Even those women who consider themselves. Fashionable and sophisticated, look upon themselves as cultured, merely by putting on fine dresses and wearing fine jewellery, and by making themselves up attractively. They do not realize that living on equal terms with men is what makes for civilized life.

The term 'primary teachers ' may first of all be applied to women, because, for children under the ages of 6 and 7, they are really the primary teachers.

Despite there being a Goddess of Learning and a Goddess of Wealth in Hindu religion, why do they not grant women their education and right to property?

Women should be given a generous education in rational knowledge and world affairs, and they should have no access to literature or history or stories that give rise to superstition and fear.

Among the many reasons for the subjugation of women, the most important one is that they lack the right to property.

The tyranny of the male is the only reason for the absence of a separate world in our languages for describing the ' Chastity ' of men.

The cruelty perpetuated in the name of chastity that a wife should put up with even the brutal act of the husband should be abolished.

If a woman can not have the right to property and the liberty to love whomsoever she chooses, what is she but a rubber -doll for the selfish use of man?

To insist that chastity is only for women and should not be insisted upon for men , is a philosophy based on individual ownership ; the view that women is the property of the male determines the current status of a wife .

If our literature have all been written for the sake of justice and disciplined conduct, then, should not all the conditions imposed on women be applied to men too?

In this world, qualities like freedom and courage have been claimed solely as 'masculine ' Men have concluded that these characterized the 'superiority of the male '.

As long as male superiority survives in the world, the subjugation of women will continue. Until women put an end to the principle of male domination, it is certain that they will have no freedom.

To give man freedom of sexual selection, and to permit him to take as many wives as he likes, gives rise to promiscuity.

To give man freedom of sexual selection, and to permit him to take as many wives as he likes, gives rise to promiscuity.

Others advocate birth - control, with a view to preserving the health of women and conserving family property; but we advocate it for the liberation of women.

If a man has the right to claim a woman, then women also should have the right to claim a man. If conditions are imposed for the worship of man by woman, let there be conditions imposed for the worship of woman by man.

Men's 'endeavour ' for the emancipation of women only perpetuates woman's slavery and hampers their emancipation. The pretence of men that they respect women and that they strive for their freedom is only a ruse to deceive women. Have you ever seen any- where a jackal freeing the hen and the lamp, or the cat freeing the rats, or the capitalists freeing the workers?

Do not train women for doing such slavish work as attending to household chores ; decorating the floors ; making cow - dung pats , washing utensils ; group dancing ( Kummi ) and dancing with batons ( Kolattam ) .

Our superstitions are the major reason for the defects and indignities of our society today. If our women have so much superstition, what about their children? Any reform gains strength if it comes from women.

Today's women are satisfied or get satisfied or get satisfied by mere fashionable make - up. Therefore they have very little urged for their liberation.

In child marriages are abolished and provisions exist for divorce , widow ' s re - marriage , intercaste marriages and for the right to marry by one's own choice , then 90 per cent of the prevailing prostitution will disappear .

Man can live without woman, but every woman thinks that she can not live without man. If we inspect the reason for this, we find that because of the problems of child bearing, women are unable to demonstrate that they can live without men. As men have no such burden, they are so placed as to declare that they can live without women, besides, problems of maternity make women seek the help of others and this gives rise to male domination. Therefore, for true emancipation of women, they should be completely freed from the bother some obligation of child - bearing.


Married couple should behave to each other like bosom friends. In any matter, the bridegroom should not the vanity that he is the husband. The bride also should behave in such a manner as not think of herself as her husband's slave and cook.

Married couple should not be hasty in bringing forth children. It will be good if children are born at least three years after the marriage.

Marriage people should spend according to what they earn. They should not borrow. Even if the income be small, they should save at least a little. This is what I would call discipline in life.

Marriage people should have a helpful bent of mind. Even if they cannot do well, they should desist from doing harm. A smaller number of children will be conducive to a good and honest life and a life of comfort.

Married people should endeavour by all means to adapt their life to the present day conditions of the world. Forgetting the world to come, they should do what is required for life now in this world.

The terms, ' husband ' and ' wife ' are inappropriate. They are only companions and partners. One does not slave for the other. They both have equal status.

Only when there is an opportunity for freedom of love does a country or society show enrichment in knowledge, affection, culture, and compassion. Where love by compulsion exists, only brutality and slavishness grow.

Finding each other indispensable in life is the mark of a lofty kind of love.

No book of ethical conduct or scripture preaches that a child - wife should be fettered by bonds of marriage and plunged into family life, when she is not prepared for it by age, and entrusted to the shackled guardianship of the husband.

Both the citizens and the police should have the right to legally proceed against those connected with unlawful marriages.

A wedding should be contracted only on the principle of the sexes, and equality of treatment. Otherwise, it is better that women live alone, without ' holy matrimony. Why should woman be slave to man?

Wedding expenses should not go beyond 10 or 15 days average income of the people. Another change is that the number of days of the wedding celebrations should be reduced.

I don't accept the words, ' Wedding, ' or ' marriage '. I term it only as a contract for companionship in life, for such a contract, except for an oath, and if necessary, a proof of registration of the contract where is the need for other ceremonies? Why should there be waste of mental effort, time, money, enthusiasm and energy on that count?

Because of irrational and extravagant wedding expenses for two or three days for gaining the approbation of a few, the wedding couple or their families suffer for a long time in debt. A few families become paupers because of wedding expenses.

It is enough, if the man and the woman sign and declare at the Registrar's Office that they have become 'Companions for life '. Such a wedding on the basis of a mere signature has more dignity, advantage and independence.

We need not follow traditional customs of marriage. Observances in according with the spirit of the time and society and the present advance of knowledge should be established. If we have to follow the ways of a particular period for all times, then it is evident that we have not grown in knowledge.

The ' self - respect marriage ' is the result of the spirit of inquiry.
Marriage does not concern the wedding couple only. It is linked with the progress of the nation.

The Youth

The Youth are like children. They are captivated by the immediacy of a situation. They are not aware of what is to come in the future. They are attracted by what they see. Whatever there is an awakening, wherever there is a crowd and gaiety, they are drawn to them, and when these disappear, they simply forget them.

Mere enthusiasm, courage and a sense of sacrifice alone will not do in the youth. The Youth can be of service only when they have the capacity to discriminate the good from the bad, the possible from the impossible, and to reflect and ponder dispassionately.

The period of youth is a dangerous and a highly inflammable one, and so it should be carefully safeguarded.
The youth are not trained to think for themselves. They have no opportunity to use their reason. They are not trained to acquaint themselves with knowledge and experience. As long as this situation does not change, they cannot take their own decisions, based on their own thought and enquiry.

Young men should be bent upon putting an end to all the religious superstitions and fraud.


If there is no ' high ' or 'low ' by birth or by riches, there will also be no 'high ' or ' low ' among the rulers and the ruled. This is the apprehension of kings.

Members of the Assembly should consider the Government as a structure for social good, and as a true spokesman and representative of the people, and not as a means for power, or for occupying positions of honour.

The prevalent desire for the existence of a political administration to look after the good of the people is because the rich should not tyrannize over the poor, the bad should not disturb the good or the meek, and the hardy chieftains should not rob the common folk.

For a proper conduct of the administration, the administrators themselves should be honest. There should be a rule that those who break law and order, should be declared unfit for administration and be disqualified from contesting elections.

Only those who want to earn wealth by hook or crook become dignitaries, and only those who want to destroy socialism by any means are in the lime light. Such people should be prevented by law from finding a place in politics and in democratic rule and administration.

Politics does not concern itself with who should rule us. It is about what kind of rule people should have.
A nation or a society is governed in the interest of the welfare of the people of the land, and not the welfare of the administrator.

A Government that tries to transfer its own responsibilities to the people or their representatives is guilty of shirking its obligations, and evading its duties.

Whatever form of politics is introduced today in our country, it should be conducive to the creation of social equality and unity.

I would not call the rule of even a hideous brute a greater indignity or drawback , over a people who read with pious reverence the tale in the Ramayana that our lands was administered for 14 years by a pair of sandals .

Whether man or animal be ruling, my concern is only about the principles, the kind of administration and the benefits that the people derive.

The duty of officer is that they should serve the people honesty and impartially, and conduct themselves with sympathy and understanding.

As long as the rich and the poor exist, practices like bribery and beggary will never cease.

Only when the principle of capitalism goes, and communism comes into being, can corruption be put an end to. Without that, talking about the abolition of corruption is equivalent to preaching the laws of Manu.

A democratic life is that which should prevail among cultured people.

A revolution is that which destroys and changes from the base. Therefore, this society should bring about very drastic changes in the spheres of politics and religion.

The rule of the people is the true principle of democracy. There should be intelligent, and reasonably honest and disciplined people for such a ' democracy'

Rightly or wrongly, there obtains in India a democratic rule. But party - rule makes a mockery of it. On seeing this, what will people of other nations think? Should not democrats be ashamed?

Everyone has the right to refute any opinion of any other person. But no one has the right to prevent the expression of that opinion.

Rivalry should last only till the election. Once it is over, both the ruling and opposition members should join hands to carry on the affairs of the Government. Only then some good can be done for the people.

Dictators brook no opposition and they force their decisions on all. In such countries. People do not tend to think own and there own and there is no freedom for them to act their own.

None can declare that a country has secure political freedom unless it has achieved social reform and social unity.
Politics is a means to end social evils. Society does not need Politics that has no bearing on social work.

The real service through politics is to serve society.

If genuine Politics is to flourish, human qualities should be fostered. There should be discipline and honest. People should feel the need for showing compassion to others.

If the Administration is not able to function properly, owing to party squabbles and agitations, it is only the people who will suffer.

Because our Government seeks and trusts only Graduates, instead of utilizing the services of men with talent and industrial progress is retarded.

Those who contrive to acquire money, fame and position through politics, are like a wasting disease of society.
People should contemplate whether our society is fit for freedom or democracy, in the context of frequent floor - crossings, plots to topple, ministries, and the occurrence of lawlessness.

Public Service

Man, unlike other animals, lives in a society of his own kind. Living as a social animal, he has to necessarily serve others, receive help from others, and be useful to society in some way or other. Thus, if an individual can be have service in some way or other. Thus, if an individual can be of service to society, he deserves to live. Otherwise, as one merely living to eat, what is the use of his existence?

The number of those who do selfless public service and those who serve without expecting any return should increase. Their sterling qualities should show the way to the people at large. Their life would be a model to show how man should conduct himself in public life.

Since birth and death are natural, people should conduct themselves in a praiseworthy manner during their span of life. People do not praise anyone for nothing. We should so act as to be worthy of praise from others.
To do all the good to others that one wishes to be done for himself is culture. Towards that end our work should be directly.

There is no pride in experiencing joy in sensual pleasures. The best delight is that which is felt in service. Life for to be lived for oneself alone. It should be for the people and for doing service.

All that I request is that you should serve the people in order to contribute to reason and knowledge. If not, man will begin to walk on all fours, forgetting the real function of his force limbs.

One should consider his dignity and prestige only in his personal affairs. In matters of public interest and in service, he should ignore them.

If those engage in public affairs think of their own dignity, then it is evident that they are exploiting a public cause for their person prestige.

Those in public life should have a more than fair measure of honesty, discipline, determination and spirit of service.

Just as a man reacts in the same way to pain in any part is leg or ear or nose or stomach or bone, he should likewise experience the woes and difficulties of any individual in the world as though they have happened to him. Depending on the intensity of his involvement, corporate living and feelings of oneness will emerge.

When those who declare "we are here to protect women and children, for that is our duty and goal", enter public affairs, genuine ideals and common cause are spoiled. Also their public service has to be considered dishonest.

Every one thinks that public property is there to be embezzled. People with such thoughts can never be fit for public administration.

After one's death, the land he has accumulated, no longer remains his, but belongs to his son: this is natural but selfless service alone can be called one's own.

One who serves society truthfully, without cunning earns natural praise, which is indeed due to him.

Virtue consists in doing well to others and that is true service. Without this serving others, for the sake of salvation or to fulfill superstitious observances, will not give real pleasure.

Tolerating the criticism of other is the true test of our public service.

The trials that occur to one who does public service are the price he pays for his ideals.

Service is not done in return for wages, or for selfish reasons. It is done solely to derive pleasure and satisfaction from the benefit derives pleasure and satisfaction from the benefit derived by others.

That which concerns the selfish interests of all people, becomes a common cause that is capable of uniting all.

The real characteristic of service is that, without sacrificing principles till the end. One should stand steadfast by them, and serve, unperturbed and unmindful of pain, blame and loss.

It is not easy to do public service. Service to God and Nation can be done by anyone. Because one encounters meanness, opposition and indignities in public service. None comes forward to do this service.