| | | | 1973-1978
From 1918 to 1930  



a Ljiy affhf ahff

1918

bgah <nuhL efuhƋ jiyt Mdh. J kj J rhKiw J - Fghf, uhl dij ml xLFtjfhf ghgd ¤j bfhoa ԩlhik J t mGjkhd btW bfhlnghY, tUila jlushj neik jiywj Uthf wD gntW bghJ Jiw mikf˚ vzw gjfis gRfshf <o jjd tUF.
Mnya M, w mwkw eLtuhf (fut khͰonu) tiu mkaJ. khtl fHf, tl fHf, efu t, kj njtjhd mwflis, bghJ yf, nghUF M njFG, ntshikahs rf, tf rf, kfh#d g UthfFG - go gy muRJiw - kW jah Jiw mikf˚ jiyt, Jiz jiyt, brayhs - vbwyh 29 w iy gjfis t VUjh.
vzw aikahj eth lf tuh brikahf eilKiw gLjgld. Fghf, Foڮ l wikahf braKiwF tjJ.
bgah <nuhL efuh jiytuhf Uj bghGJ, dh˚ ahɋ ftd - b#du Md U. . uhrnfhghy Mrh ahUF (uh#h) tUF ilna ew kyjJ.
1919
U. . tujuhRY ehL, U. . uhrnfhghy Mrhah Mnah, kfhkh fh t elJ nja fhuR fƚ nrUkhW tiu U ntobfhld.
<nuhL efuh jiyt gjia y ɣL fhuR fƚ cWduhf bgah jik izJ bfhlh.
1920
Mnya Mia v⮤J kfhkh fhaof bjhla xJiHahik af ġf MtJl t <Lglh.
mj jiytNj vG miHig VW, jh nkbfhoUj 29 bghJJiw gjf midij Jwjh. xU g iy cUgh 10 (gJ) Tl ɉfhj mj fhy MLnjhW cUgh 20,000 <o tj bjhʚ Wtdijna _oɣlh; FLg tfijna Jwjh.
<nuho wfgl 144 rl jil rlij ۿ Kj Kjyhf t ifJ Mdh.
kfhkh fhaofis bgah edh; j jiytuhf VW bfhlh.
vdnt mtj cik bjhluhf fhaofˋ xbthU brhYF bra tot ju t bjhldh.
mjF X vLJfhL: fj iy rfu _y t wh. fj Jiana ma ntL vW fhaof flis Lj clndna iy caj btehL Jfis vJɣL, fj Miliana ma Kglh. mJl, 80 taJs j midah cˣl jf FLg cWd midtiunk fj Mil kLnk cLj flhagLdh! mJtiu Jj Mlguij JwJ, jkJ thif gaz xbthU iyYnk vik gig foghd anghL filojh.
kJyF bfhifia iyehoat
1921
kJyF bfhif Kj KjȚ cUthf bgwJ bgah mtfˋ ynyna. fhah <nuhL tJ tuJ y jdh. mbghGJ, Fonghij fztfsh fbfhoa JWjYF cshF kidaNj jhbfhzhj kdtia g bgahNj Jizah ehfikahU, jif fzkhS mtl s Td; kJ bghUfis jil br bfhifia tFnj u ntL vW mGjkhf tWd. jfhf xU nghuhlijna elj ntL vW thld.
nghwjf j fUid fhah clnd VW bfhlh. kJyF bfhifia eilKiwgLJkhW Mnya muir tW ehL KGtJ fhuR fd fSfil Kdh ka bra ntL vW mɤjh.
kJyF bfhifia iyehl fhah Lj mj flisia iwntW tjfhf, jKila guj njhf˚ f cgfhf Ëw 500-F nkgl bjid kufis bgah ntnuhL bto 圤dh. mj msF kJyF bfhifY cWahd o bfhoUjh t.
<nuhL efǚ nghuhl ufis tel brW fSfil Kdh ka Ǫjh bgah. t ifJ bragL, xU khj iw jlid fglh.
1922
tj kid ehfkhS jif fzkhS sƚ f J¢rnyhL Fjd; fSfil Kdh ka brtjF bg bjhlfis jhfns t el brwd.
mj nghuhlij WLkhW, fhuR fƋ Kd¤ jiytf y khkj fhahiu nto bfhld. mbghGJ mtnuh sia WJ mjifa Koit jkh kLnk vLf KoahJ vW <nuho cs uL bgkfˋ iff˚jh mJ UwJ vW mt cWglnt ciujh. bgah mtfˋ kid jifnk mt Fgh cza U bgkf.
jĜehL fhu jiyt
1922
bgah jĜehL fhu FGɋ jiyt Mdh. Uǚ eilbgw mj fƋ khy kheho, uhl dij nrj M uhl midtU tghL bra nfhɚfSF mDkfgl ntL vgij tWJ xU Ԯkhdij bfhL tjh. Mdh fhu FGɚ Uj ghgdf mj Ԯkhd iwntwhjgo jLJɣld.
jfsJ tUz jUk vD rh Kiwia filog mtf fhoa btjdjh Fj Mu milj bgah - MaNj kDRU, uhkhaz Kjyhdtiw bfhSj ntL vW mɤjh. VbdŚ, rh kW _leif vD bfhLikfsh uhl dijna ml xL gLJtjF jf kj fUfshf mtiw trfkhd ghgd gagLd.
1923
J kj nfhɚf˚ ghgd ela Rul ntilF Ko fl - gdf mur jiyikƚ mikj f muR, brid khfhz rl nkyitƚ, xU rlij iwnt J rka mwiya Jiw mikf t tFjJ.
jh xU fhu jiytuhf Uj nghY Tl f M iwnta mj rlij bgah MjǤjh. Jkj Mafsh xL cUFiyfgl uhl djtUF r_f , f, ntiy th, bghUa nghwt rk cikfS mila ntL vg cikahd mfiw bfhoUjnj bgah mgo MjǤjjF fhuz.
r_f fhd ngh kwt
1924

muR Miz _y fY ntiy thY tFth l xJL bfhifia bragLj f M nkbfhS el toiffis bgah ghuhodh.
J rhahf˚ f Hhd moikfshf M uhliu ml xLFtjF xU tKiwahf ԩlhik vgij ghgd fLikahf filojd. mj bfhoa rh Kiwia xʤJ fL bghUL, nfush khy itf vD Cǚ jil rlij ۿ beRunjhL nghuhlJF bgah jiyik VW eldh.
itf vD mj efǚ, nfhiy Rs bjUf˚ <Ht vD jhjgl kf elgjF Tl mDkfglɚiy. vdntjh mnf cq fhu fd ka nghuhlij bjhld.
mjF jiyik jhF bghWig VgjF jĜehoUJ tUkhW bgahUF ntLnfh Ljd. tU mnf mj sF jiyik Vwh. mjdh uL jlitf iw jlid fglh.
mj ka ngh X MLFnk ojJ. d ԩlglhjtF bjUf wJlgld; elgjF mDk iljJ.
kj cikfSfhf J¢rnyhL eilbgw nghuhlK, ahfK btia <o jjd. mjdh itf u vW bgah miHfglh..


1924 brlg 11
Mnya Mƚ maehL bghUfˋ wf¥F, fj Jiana cLj ntL vgjF K bfhif KHf (urhu) brjh vgjfhf t iw jlid fglh.

1924
Ubent mUnf nrukhnj Cǚ eilbgw nja gƉ gƋ L FUFy vd miHfbgwJ. t.nt.R. ma vD ghgd mj bghWid VUjh. jĜehL fhu FG VgLa mj FUFy, uhl dij nrj bfhilahfˋ cjahY aaJ. MDmj bghWid VUjtnuh mnf rh ntWghil fhodh. ghgd - ghgduyhjh vW jŤjna ǤJ itJ cz gkhwglJ.
uhl khztfis jna xJ itJ jkJ Ma d ghgd khztfSF kL jŢ rYif fhoa t.nt.R. maNj rh btjd Fj mQF Kiw bgahl Muijna _oaJ. Mfnt khbgU kj gghsuhd t, mj ghgdNj bfhoa nghif foJ jĜehL fhu FGɋ brayhsuhd bgah nghbfho dh.
1924 etg f˚ Utzhkiyƚ eilbgw fhu fƋ khfhz khehLF t jiyik jhdh.
Mf brYJ ghgdF izahf thifƋ vyh JiwfY caj iyfis vl, ʪj iyfis Ju mof ghgd myhjh vdgL uhl djtF fY muR mYtfY tFth l xJL flha ntL. j nfhǡifia tWJ Ԯkhdij 1920 M ML Kjny fhu khehLf˚ KbkhʪJ bfhnl Ujh bgah.
jh jiyik Vw 1924 Utzhkiy fhu khfhz khehoY mj Ԯkhdij t bfhL tjh.
Mdh, ghgdfnsh, Ubent (1920), jrh (1921), U (1922), nry (1923) Ma fhu khehLf˚ brjij nghnw Utzhkiy (1924) khehoY bgahNj Ԯkhdij njhfojd.

1924
nry efǚ xU bghJTl ngR bghGJ bgah X vrǡif Ljh: Mnya M fhynyna ghgd myhjh (uhl) tFth lxJL cikia bgwh xa ghgd nkyhfij xʡfnt KoahJ; uhl djt, uhknzhu vD ghga bfhLnfh Mƚ Jggljh ntL vwh. thW xU a brhyhfijna t cUthdh.

1925 - nk 2
Fo muR vD jiy xU jĜ thu jiH bgah btƣlh. jhnk mj Mauhf mkjh. J kj bfhoa rh Kiw kW _leif _y ghgduh ml moikgLjgl uhl djtUF ʥz CL jkhd vG bfhiffis mj j thyhf gudh.
Jwnfhy l jĜ Ph ft ġf brhbghthsUkhd, f j Ughǥ - Phah mof Fo muR thu Vo Kj jiH btƣlh.

1925 - etg
jĜ yha, j Ma, brhbghths, bjhyhs jiyt - vbwyh gyJiw mPuhf fjt jĜ bjw U. . fahzRjudh (U..f.). mtuJ jiyikƚ fhu efǚ fhu khehL eilbgwJ. mY Tl, ghgd myhjhUF WF 50 GfhL tFth l xJL ntL vW Ԯkhd bfhLtjh bgah.
tHfnghynt ju ġf ghgd, mJ iwntWtij jLjd. mj njh viyaw Mufhuuhf khaJ bgahiu. vdnt, ghgduh KGikahf ifgwgL Mf brYa khfhz jiyik bghW FGit bfhl fhuR fUJ t btnadh.
mthW fhuRF il bfhLj bghGJ, jkJ vfhy xnu ntiy - ghgd Mf Mia bfhl fhuir vyh tiffY monahL xʤJ fLtJjh vW bgah o KHfJl NSiujh. t khehil ɣL btnaa clndna, f bgU v¡ifƚ fƋ Kd¤ jiytfS bjhlfS tiu bjhlJ tJɣld.
Rakahij af njhWɤjt

1925 - org
mnj fhu fhuRF nghoahf ghgd myhjh khehil bgah eldh.
jkJ brhbghɚ, gil fhy Kjbfhnl, uhlF MaF (ghgdF) ilnaahd j d ntWghL vbghGJnk UJ tJsJ vW, mJnt iwa fhu fY ytij kWfnt KoahJ vW bgah bt˥gilahf vLJiujh. Mfnt J kj rh Kiw kW _l eif _ykhf ghga Mfjh thf uʡfgl uhlNj d, bkh, ehff Mat jkhdij fo fhgh bfhtJ tfˋ flha njit vW t tW ngdh.
thwhfnt, fhuR fiaɣL btnaa bgah, 1925-M Mo Rakahij af (Self-Respect Movement) vD ӮUj ghriwia njhWɤjh.

1926
jĜeho gntW lfY eilbgw Vuhskhd ghgd myhjh (uhl) khehLf˚ t gF bfhlh. ghgdF moikf vD UJ jfis LɤJ bfhS bghUL uhl djtNj ʥz ia bfhGJ l brtjfhf jkJ jkhd af bfhiffis gudh t.

1927
fhu f jiyt v.nf. fh mtfis bgfSǚ bgah neǚ rJ thjh. tUzhuk jUk vD eR nfL bfhl rhKiwia ntnuhL fisbjjh m, ghgduh othjkhf filofgL ԩlhik ikia xʥgJ vgJ Koahj bra vW mtl fLikahfnt t thj Ǫjh.
ahɋ LjiyF nghuhLtjF Kd, ehil mRWJ _W ԧFfis KjȚ xʤJfl ntL vW fhahl t mGjkhfnt vLJiujh. mit tUkhW: (1) fhu f (ghgd bghWghsfˋ Mf ќ csJ). (2) rhKiwia bfhl J kj. (3) ghgdfˋ nkyhf.
ehfgod uƚnt bjhʉrhiy Cafˋ ntiyWj btoj bghGJ bjhyhsfis MjǤjh bgah. mjdh ifJ bragL iwƚ milfglh.

1928
brid khfhz lhl . Rguha mtfis jiytuhf bfhl jŢirahd (vj f rh yhj) M eilbgwJ. m l bgW Uj mikr v. Kijah (Kjah), tFth l xJL lij bgahNj Kidghd Mjul eilKiw gLdh.
1928 - etg 7-M eh u (Revolt) vD My jiH bgah bjhldh.

1929
Rakahij af vgj Kj khfhz khehL brfgL efǚ 1929 ut khj bgah Kaah eilbgwJ. U. l..V. ru ghoa khehLF jiyik jhdh.

Rakahij ӮUj Ukz
1929
Rakahij Ukz vd miHfbgW gFj jGa xU a thif xgj Kiwia bgah Kj Kj mKf brJ el fhodh.
j fɚ - vyh kj rlFfS, fl tghL, jf rkUj bkhƚ ghgd kuf xJjY ڡfgld; J kzkf, vtnuD xUtuJ jiyikƚ khiyfis xUtUF xUt mɤJ bfhL thif xgj cW bkhia jf jhbkhƚ (jHf jĜ) Tdhny nghJ. j Ukz gfL Mlgunk TlhJ; ff fdkhf J eilbgw ntL; itna jkJ ӮUj Ukz KiwF bgah tFj tiuaiw f.
j a Ukz Vgho _y kjrhik (Secularism) nfhghil bgah bragLdh. vj kjij rhjtuhf Uj nghY, vtU jiyik jh, kzkfis thifƋ rk cik gFjhuuhf MF cW bkhia goFkhW khiyfis kh bfhSkhW T kz Hhit el itfyh.
Jikahd j Ukz l _y, rh kW - kj kW - fy Ukzfis, ifbg (jit) kWkzij CfgL eilbgw brjh bgah.
(jij bgahiu kLnk xnu jiytuhf Vw gFj jsgahd nguP mzh, 1967- jĜehL khy Kjyikruhf jh Ms bjhlaJ, Rakahij Ukz KiwF vd jŢ rl iwnt j jiytiu kɤjh.)

knyahF Kj btehL gaz
1929 - org 15
knyah eho (iwa knyah ehL) thG jĜ kf miHig VW ehfgod JiwKfUJ jkJ fg gazij bgah bjhldh. mj Kj btehL gaz Jizah ehfkhS af bjhlf yU cl brwd.
org-20
dhF JiwKf 50,000-F nkgl knyah jHf fl nghy uL, bgahUF tj FGdUF vG Fj tunt tHd.
org - 23
<ngh efǚ, jH ӮUj rf VghL brj jH khehil wJ itJ ciuahdh bgah.
org - 26
f efǚ bgahUF t FGdUF khbgU k tunt tHfbgwJ. mnf knyah a fhu ela kheho bgah brhbgh Mdh.
(meh˚ Mnya Mƚ knyah eho xU khykhfnt f UjJ. nghJ Ljiy bgw jehlhfnt J sFwJ.)
org W ehf
knyah eho nfhyhy, kyhfh, ij, Rifglh Kjyhd gntW lfY jkJ jkhd af bfhiffis bgah KHdh.

jHf Ua ...
1930 - rdt 16
bgah kW t FGd knyah ehoUJ fgȚ W jĜehL Ud.
y khjf˚, xU wj Kndhoahf FLg fLghL g bgah btƣlh. FHijfˋ v¡ifia FiwF KiwF fUJ gug (urhu) brjh. meh˚ a muR FHij fLghL lij bragLJtjF Kng, mj flha njitia ahnyna Kj Kj tWa gFj vGa MaU bgah xUt kLnk!
nk khj 10-11
<nuhL efǚ Rakahij af ulhtJ khfhz khehil bgah eldh. kuhoa khy nd efǚ thj gFj jiyt U. v. M. b#af mj khehLF jiyik jhdh. mnj ntisƚ khfhz khehil xo, isP khehL, bgf khehL, kJyF khehL, jĜ ir Mju khehL - Mait bgah Kaah eil bgwd.
njtjh Kiwia xʡF rl Ktiuit (Bill) bgah Kidghf MjǤjh.
(nks, ehad Kjyhd ir fUfis gagLJ xU tFid nrj s bgfis J nfhɚf˚ eld, eifauhf bghLfo bghJ kfˮ MF bfhoa Kiwia FaJ ghga. mj mHfns njtjhf vd miHfbgwd.)
lhl KJyR buo xU ӮUj bgk Mth. mtnu mj rl Ktiuit toJ, rhbt oj ghgd jiytfˋ v⮥ig KaoJ, brid rl nkyitƚ iwntw brJ ɣlh. jF bgah bgU Mjuit bjɤjh.